Quantitative estimates are difficult because of the lack of reliable data and the extreme complexity of biogeochemical cycles, especially at the sea-land and sea-atmosphere interfaces. Point and non-point source pollutions continue globally, resulting in the steady degradation of coastal and marine ecosystems. Indirect or diffuse inputs are usually widespread low-level discharges and likely result in chronic pollution. In this section, generic sources of pollution and effects eutrophicationcontamination and pollution from industry and agriculture, etc.
In most locations, this is a natural process with usually no impact on human settlement. Coastal protection of the shoreline is rarely required in Australia, however in a few locations the dynamic shoreline has become a problem, in some cases a major and expensive problem, and in almost all of these cases the problem is related to human interference or encroachment on the shoreline.
Coastal Environmental and ecological impacts of coastal works, such as breakwaters, groynes, or seawalls, are usually built to guard against erosion. In doing so they harden the coast and reduce its ability to adjust naturally.
As a consequence, these defences can exacerbate further erosional problems, with seawalls reflecting and concentrating wave energy and erosion, and groynes starving downdrift the coast of sediment thereby leading to further erosion.
There are areas where human have encroached into the dynamic beach environment only to suffer the consequences, and others where they have interfered with coastal processes leading to accelerated coastal erosion. The popular marina area and the hub of Cairns has encroached on Trinity Inlet and formerly mangrove-covered mudflats along the seafront are now bare and lined with seawalls, backed by development close to sea level.
Much of Cairns is also built on a coastal plain, part of the Barron River delta, with the mangrove-lined tidal creeks that meandered through these plains all that remain.
These are inundated at highest tides and demonstrate that critical infrastructure, such as the airport, lie close to present high tide level as is often also the case with other airports, such as those at Brisbane and Sydney.
At this level much of the coastal plain and city would be inundated by a 2. The north Cairns coast along Yorkys Knob-Machans-Holloway beaches is lined with seawalls because much of the shoreline has been retreating, on a coast that in the long-term is building seaward as the Barron River delta progrades.
The problem here is both the dynamic shoreline of the delta, which switches channels, has major floods and accompanying pulses of sediment, on a coast exposed to periodic tropical cyclones, all of which produces a highly dynamic shoreline. Roads and houses have been built on parts of the coast which will periodically be reclaimed by the sea, as well as periodically protected by wide beaches.
Finally, when climate change is considered, the already perilously low-lying developments in Cairns are at considerable risk to inundation, as discussed in the next section. In the Tweed River training walls were extended for navigation, m out to sea.
The southern wall blocked the movement of sand, which built out the adjacent Letitia Spit by m, in the process trapping millions of cubic metres of sand and preventing it from moving across the border and along the Gold Coast beaches.
The solution has been threefold. First, a continuous terminal seawall was built the length of the coast and covered with sand and dunes. Second between and 3. Third, a permanent pumping system was built just south of the training wall, which since has pumped more than m3 of sand each year from New South Wales across the border onto the Gold Coast beaches.
In these beaches were as wide was they have ever been. However, it has all come at a cost in the tens of millions of dollars. Studies have shown that the walls impacted the beach to the north and south.
The beach built it out for 8km updrift, while erosion was observed to extend up to 17 km downdrift, with the shorelines not stabilising until Unlike the Gold Coast, this area did not warrant the massive expenditure on protection, so it was sacrificed.
The jetty at Byron Bay was removed inand ad hoc coastal protection was attempted at Belongil Spit with car bodies dumped to try to halt the erosion of sand.
The storms, estimated as a 1: Real estate potentially threatened. The original property boundaries extend, and still do, down across the dune onto the beach, with most of the houses and now some high rises built on the beach-dune area.
The consequences were entirely predictable, every time the beach retreated during high seas, the then beach shacks were undermined.
Major erosion occurred inseven shacks fell into the sea inand one was washed out to sea in Following the storms the council voted to resume the remaining houses. Instead, within ten years the first block of flats was built and soon after the first high-rise, which in turn was undermined by the storms.
More high rises followed, the next built just in time to be undermined by the storms. Here the council has allowed initial development in a hazard zone, and later massive over-development even after houses had been washed away. Collaroy remains a problem area with most of the affected properties fronted by makeshift seawalls.Environmental impacts occur at all stages of oil and gas production and use.
Tourism impact on coastal environment S. Zahedi Allameh Tabataba'i University, Iran Tourism research on ecological impacts started during the s and s. conceive environmental impacts from different angles, with a system perspective. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) Commissioner Basil Seggos today announced the creation of a member Ocean Acidification (OA) Task Force to assess impacts of acidification on the ecological, economic, and recreational health of New York's coastal waters, work to. This paper examines the assessment of cumulative environmental impacts and the implementation of integrated coastal management within the harbour of Xiamen, China, an urban region in which the coastal zone is under increasing pressure as a result of very rapid economic growth.
They result from prospecting activities (including seismic techniques), physical impact due to the installation of rigs, operational discharges when production starts, accidental and routine spills, and finally combustion. The coastal zone has experienced multiple ecological impacts due to human activities including leveeing of the Mississippi River, large-scale wetland reclamation, water quality deterioration, pollution, and widespread disruption of hydrology.
Tourism impact on coastal environment S. Zahedi Allameh Tabataba'i University, Iran Tourism research on ecological impacts started during the s and s. conceive environmental impacts from different angles, with a system perspective. This chapter examines the impacts of climate change on the natural coastal ecosystems in the North Sea region.
These comprise sandy shores and dunes and salt marshes in estuaries and along the coast. The Maritime Industry and Coastal Construction Impacts (MICCI) Focus Area was formed to address coastal construction and maritime industry activities that have the potential of impacting our coastal habitats and coral reefs.
Specifically, the Leasing EIS will consider and analyze the potential environmental impacts of various leasing alternatives, including the areas to offer for sale, The area comprising the Coastal Plain includes approximately million acres within the approximately million-acre Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.