Overview[ edit ] A narrative is a telling of some true or fictitious event or connected sequence of events, recounted by a narrator to a narratee although there may be more than one of each. Narratives are to be distinguished from descriptions of qualities, states, or situations, and also from dramatic enactments of events although a dramatic work may also include narrative speeches. A narrative consists of a set of events the story recounted in a process of narration or discoursein which the events are selected and arranged in a particular order the plot. The category of narratives includes both the shortest accounts of events for example, the cat sat on the mat, or a brief news item and the longest historical or biographical works, diaries, travelogues, and so forth, as well as novels, ballads, epics, short stories, and other fictional forms.
Instructions for the teacher are on the backs of the phonogram cards as in the examples shown here: Students also develop cognition in auditory and visual discrimination, learn to listen intently, to process oral information and act upon it, and to speak precisely. Additional auditory, visual, verbal, visual motor and tactile cognitive sub-skills such as directionality, linear eye movements, spatial relationships, sequencing, attention, memory, closure, articulation, tone and rhythm are also carefully developed through the process by which we teach these phonograms.
The "learned" phonograms are then applied in written spelling through a Socratic and dictation process using 47 spelling, syllabication, plural, apostrophe and capitalization rules of the language using teacher "modeled" sentences for immediate applications in context, vocabulary and comprehension.
The 47 rules follow: The letter q is always followed by the letter u, and we say "kw.
Double consonants within words of more than one syllable should both be sounded for spelling. Silent final e lets the vowel say its name. English words do not end with v or u. Silent final e lets c and g say their second sounds. English syllables must have a written vowel.
No job e [none of the above, e. All, till and full are usually written with one l when added to another syllable. The plural of most nouns is formed by adding s. A one-syllable word is never divided. Vowels that are sounded alone form their own syllable.
Capitalize words which are the individual names or titles of people, of places, of books, of days and months, etc. Say names of single or hyphenated letters shown in bold l, f, s; s-i, l-e. Say the sound of phonograms within quotation marks "ck"with mnemonic markings, or with diacritical dictionary markings with or without quotation marks.
Do not say anything shown in brackets [dge; cry crying] when teaching the rules. These are illustration words for the teacher's use only. Do not teach rule numbers to students; they must articulate the rule itself as each is applied in dictated spelling, reading, blending and decoding lessons.
McCulloch The rules are most effectively taught when the phonograms are applied, sound by sound, in written, dictated spelling lessons - not by rote memorization. Students learn the "process" of analysis and thinking simultaneously and with appropriate repetition until the concept is mastered.
Students are taught, through dictation only no copyingfirst to say the word, break it into syllables, and write or encode it from the spoken sounds spell.
They compare it "visually" to what they have written; rules and markings are applied together, then the students sound it again decodeblend it, and begin to read the most commonly used English words The mnemonic marking system used enables students to automatically see whole words through these "sounded" spelling patterns not merely individual letter sounds which is critical for fluency in reading - the primary prerequisite for comprehension.
Here are a few examples of "voiced" sounds in words which are frequently misunderstood and misspelled when inaccurate, incomplete or delayed teaching of phonetics occurs: This phonetic and rules-based English spelling system is set apart from other methods in the following unique and additional ways: Formal instruction begins in the fourth week.
Rules are taught through application only, not by rote memorization.
Consonant clusters blends are taught through dictated spelling and reading only, not as phonograms, which prevents loss of auditory discrimination and processing skills, phonemic awareness, etc. Teaching around the "schwa" "uh" sound for vowels a, e, i, and o in unaccented syllables and "regional" pronunciations by specifically stressing "what we must think to spell and write correctly" rather than what we sometimes "hear" or "say" in the rhythm of speech.
Spelling is addressed first. Though it is more difficult than reading, it is also much more easily organized with the rules and a complete phonetic base. Students who spell and write well, also read while the reverse is frequently untrue. Students begin oral sentences using the spelling words, in the 5th week.
This practice meets research recommendations of the contextual use of words in sentences, followed, in the 7th or 8th week, by written sentences one sensible requisite of the popular "whole language" programs that the young authors then read aloud to the class.
This is their first, formal reading in context. Students, who have been carefully taught these basic writing and spelling skills, in this order, in this "reading readiness" stage, are successful with initial reading attempts because they are reading what they have correctly spelled and written themselves.This is similar to English and the French sentence would be constructed the same way.
However, in French, if you are a female, you must use the feminine ending of the adjective. In the adjective charts below, the feminine form of the word is listed second.
Adjectives to describe someone in French. To ask some Francophone about physical appearance, you can use the expression " A quoi ressemble? And to answer the question you can use the same expression but in the affirmative form " Il ressemble à" and add few adjectives from the table bellow.
Apr 04, · Most of us learn the ABCs in our youth. We see and say the letters so many times they eventually become etched in our minds.
But researchers from Johns Hopkins University discovered that . I can understand phrases and the highest frequency vocabulary related to areas of most immediate personal relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local area, employment).
French people are the descendants of Gauls and Romans, western European Celtic and Italic peoples, as well as Bretons, Aquitanians, Ligurians, and Germanic people arriving at the beginning of the Frankish Empire such as the Franks, the Visigoths, the Suebi, the Saxons, the Allemanni and the Burgundians, and later Germanic groups such as the Vikings (known as Normans), who settled in Normandy.
Verbs for description in French.
Related Learning Resources in Store. Find out more here Vocabulary for Physical & Personality Description in French. Here are a few words you will need find useful to describe people in French.