Visit Website But between and a series of interconnected developments occurred in Europe that provided the impetus for the exploration and subsequent colonization of America. These developments included the Protestant Reformation and the subsequent Catholic Counter-Reformation, the Renaissance, the unification of small states into larger ones with centralized political power, the emergence of new technology in navigation and shipbuilding, and the establishment of overland trade with the East and the accompanying transformation of the medieval economy. Protestantism emphasized a personal relationship between each individual and God without the need for intercession by the institutional church.
Religion and Eighteenth-Century Revivalism by John Demos American colonial history belongs to what scholars call the early modern period. As such, it is part of a bridge between markedly different eras in the history of the western world. On its far side lies the long stretch we call the Middle Ages or the "medieval period"on its near one the rise of much we connect with modernity.
It holds the root of modern science epitomized by Sir Isaac Newtonof modern political thought Thomas Hobbes, John Lockeof modern capitalism the first large joint-stock corporations, including some which financed transatlantic "discovery"of modern state formation "nations," roughly as we understand the term todayof urbanization most especially, London and Paris, but also colonial cities such as New York, Philadelphia, and Bostonand even of what scholars now refer to as "proto-industrialization" the earliest factory-style modes of production.
Yet for the great mass of European—and American—humanity, the flavor of life at ground level remained highly traditional, including an almost exclusive reliance on subsistence agriculture; immersion in small-scale, face-to-face patterns of social life; and a code of behavior shaped by age-old religious beliefs and folk nostrums.
The colonization by Europeans of the two great American continents expressed both sides of the bridge. Its animating source was the clash and competition of European empires—a distinctly modern element.
Yet the motivation for such endeavor also involved extending Christianity to "heathen lands," and locating rich sources of gold and other precious metals—twin ideas of ancient provenance. The Peopling of North America Portugal and Spain, having launched the so-called Age of Discovery at the end of the fifteenth century, laid claim to most of what is today Central and South America.
The British, and others from northern Europe, were latecomers to the imperial contest. As a result, their entry, beginning aroundwas channeled toward what was left—chiefly, the Caribbean islands and the cold, apparently hostile and frightening, coastline of North America.
At first, their plans mirrored those of the Spanish and Portuguese. For example, the Puritan founders of Massachusetts were strongly bent on converting native "savages"—hence their adoption of an official seal with the image of an unclothed Indian saying, "Come Over and Help Us.
Massachusetts—begun at Boston infollowing a beachhead made a decade before by the "Pilgrims" at Plymouth—retained a deeply religious orientation through most of the colonial era. Its compact towns and villages were organized around largely autonomous "Congregational" churches; ministers played a key role in the local culture; and Protestant moral strictures framed many aspects of everyday life.
Farming was the focus of productive effort, and most of what was raised went straight to household kitchens and dinner tables. To be sure, after about a growing class of merchants would create new lines of private enterprise, some of them extremely far-flung, while attaining high levels of wealth and developing a genteel lifestyle to match.
This trend, which would not reach its apex until well into the eighteenth century, is nicely encapsulated in the phrase "from Puritan to Yankee. Having failed in their quest for gold, and also in their attempts to raise silk, citrus products, and other potentially lucrative cash crops, Virginians turned after to intensive tobacco-cultivation.
The same was true of those who founded Maryland, aroundas a refuge for Catholics fleeing the rising pressure of Puritanism in old England. This focus lay behind the distinctive settlement pattern of the Chesapeake colonies—where numerous, more or less isolated, "plantations" lay stretched out along rivers and ridgelines, with little in the way of village-style contact among them.
Tobacco exhausted soil fertility so rapidly that individual planters felt obliged to engross large quantities of land simply in order to maintain consistent levels of production; when, after a few years, one field would no longer bear a good crop, cultivation was moved to others.
Moreover, the same planters needed ready access to the ships that would carry their harvest to market; hence a host of little wharves and docks sprouted at intervals along the shoreline. Both factors—crop and marketing requirements—worked to disperse settler populations across a broad expanse of coastal and interior land the Tidewater and the Piedmont, in local parlance.
In the meantime, other European groups were joining the settlement process: Eventually, all except the small Spanish outposts would be absorbed into a single, English-controlled sphere of colonization. There would be additional English settlements as well. Thus several new settlements spun off from Massachusetts: Connecticut ; Rhode Island ; and New Hampshire Further down the coast came New Jersey s ; Pennsylvania, founded by English Quakers but thereafter populated largely by German immigrants misnamed the "Pennsylvania Dutch" ; Delaware ; Carolinalater to be divided into two colonies, North and South ; and Georgia But the following century would bring an extraordinary shift toward multiethnic, multicultural diversity, as Germans, Scots-Irish, and, most especially, Africans arrived in increasingly large numbers.
By the time of the American Revolution, scarcely half the population could claim descent from "English stock. This group—perhaps 10 million strong, continent-wide, when the first European settlers stepped ashore—would play an ambivalent role in colonization.
On the one hand, Indians often served as helpers and teachers of the struggling, sometimes overmatched, newcomers. Squanto really did show the Pilgrims how to plant corn, just as legend declares. On the other, Indians were quick to realize the threat posed by settlement to their lives and livelihoods.
Thus, as early as in Virginia—and then in many other locations throughout the remainder of the colonial era—"Indian wars" would shed the blood and despoil the lands of both sides.
Indians won some of the battles, but not the ones that counted most.British Settlement in American Continent and Regionalism Essay - British Settlement in American Continent and Regionalism Describe how settlement patterns set-up the regionalisms of the United States.
Throughout history, people from cultures around the world have come to America seeking a new life or a change from their current conditions. Essay on Concerns That Caused the Settlement of British North America settling of British North America than did religious reasons.
First, according to my textbook, the British originally sponsored trips over to the New World only after other countries were profiting from their collections of goods and new trade ports. Compare and contrast Spanish and British colonization efforts in North America prior to Prior to , both Spanish and British colonization efforts expanded into various regions of North America.
In less than a century, from to , the movements of peoples and goods from Europe to North America transformed the continent.
Aug 21, · Watch video · But between and a series of interconnected developments occurred in Europe that provided the impetus for the exploration and subsequent colonization of America. British Colonies in North America Essay - British Colonies in North America Despite their staggering differences economically, politically, and culturally, the British colonies of North America managed to pull together to resist the British .
Essay on Concerns That Caused the Settlement of British North America settling of British North America than did religious reasons. First, according to my textbook, the British originally sponsored trips over to the New World only after other countries were profiting from .