The Solar System includes four terrestrial planets composed of rock and metal and four gas giants gaseous material. These names are derived from Roman gods and goddesses. So how many planets have we mentioned?
Discovery and exploration of the Solar System Andreas Cellarius 's illustration of the Copernican system, from the Harmonia Macrocosmica For most of history, humanity did not recognize or understand the concept of the Solar System.
Most people up to the Late Middle Ages — Renaissance believed Earth to be stationary at the centre of the universe and categorically different from the divine or ethereal objects that moved through the sky. Although the Greek philosopher Aristarchus of Samos had speculated on a heliocentric reordering of the cosmos, Nicolaus Copernicus was the first to develop a mathematically predictive heliocentric system.
This was the first evidence that anything other than the planets orbited the Sun. Structure and composition Comprehensive overview of the Solar System. The Sun, planets, dwarf planets and moons are at scale for their relative sizes, not for distances.
A separate distance scale is at Solarsystem in hindi bottom. Moons are listed near their planets by proximity of their orbits; only the largest moons are shown. The principal component of the Solar System is the Sun, a G2 main-sequence star that contains The remaining objects of the Solar System including the four terrestrial planetsthe dwarf planetsmoonsasteroidsand comets together comprise less than 0.
The planets are very close to the ecliptic, whereas comets and Kuiper belt objects are frequently at significantly greater angles to it.
The overall structure of the charted regions of the Solar System consists of the Sun, four relatively small inner planets surrounded by a belt of mostly rocky asteroids, and four giant planets surrounded by the Kuiper belt of mostly icy objects. Astronomers sometimes informally divide this structure into separate regions.
The inner Solar System includes the four terrestrial planets and the asteroid belt. The outer Solar System is beyond the asteroids, including the four giant planets. Most of the largest natural satellites are in synchronous rotationwith one face permanently turned toward their parent.
All planets of the Solar System lie very close to the ecliptic. The closer they are to the Sun, the faster they travel inner planets on the left, all planets except Neptune on the right. Kepler's laws of planetary motion describe the orbits of objects about the Sun. Following Kepler's laws, each object travels along an ellipse with the Sun at one focus.
Objects closer to the Sun with smaller semi-major axes travel more quickly because they are more affected by the Sun's gravity. On an elliptical orbit, a body's distance from the Sun varies over the course of its year. A body's closest approach to the Sun is called its perihelionwhereas its most distant point from the Sun is called its aphelion.
The orbits of the planets are nearly circular, but many comets, asteroids, and Kuiper belt objects follow highly elliptical orbits. The positions of the bodies in the Solar System can be predicted using numerical models. Objects farther from the Sun are composed largely of materials with lower melting points.
For comparison, the radius of the Sun is 0. Thus, the Sun occupies 0. Jupiter, the largest planet, is 5. With a few exceptions, the farther a planet or belt is from the Sun, the larger the distance between its orbit and the orbit of the next nearer object to the Sun.
For example, Venus is approximately 0. Attempts have been made to determine a relationship between these orbital distances for example, the Titius—Bode law but no such theory has been accepted.
The images at the beginning of this section show the orbits of the various constituents of the Solar System on different scales. Some Solar System models attempt to convey the relative scales involved in the Solar System on human terms.
Some are small in scale and may be mechanical—called orreries —whereas others extend across cities or regional areas. Distances are to scale, objects are not.
Distances of selected bodies of the Solar System from the Sun. The left and right edges of each bar correspond to the perihelion and aphelion of the body, respectively, hence long bars denote high orbital eccentricity.
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NASA’s real-time science encyclopedia of deep space exploration. Our scientists and hardworking robots are exploring the wild frontiers of our solar system. Exploring our Solar System with Pictures and Information on the Sun, the Moon, Phases of the Moon and the Nine Planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto).
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