Overview Work in Artificial Intelligence AI has produced computer programs that can beat the world chess champion and defeat the best human players on the television quiz show Jeopardy. AI has also produced programs with which one can converse in natural language, including Apple's Siri. Our experience shows that playing chess or Jeopardy, and carrying on a conversation, are activities that require understanding and intelligence.
Click here for a translation into Serbian by Branca Fiagic. Statement about the real world supported by convergent evidence. Facts can be empirical, analytical, evaluative, or metaphysical. Self-report or attitudinal statement.
Statement about the real world refuted by the evidence. Vague, ambiguous, or incomplete claim OR factual claim for which evidence is yet unavailable. A thorny issue in critical reading involves the ambiguous terms fact and opinion. We ask school children to distinguish facts and opinions, as if it were a relatively straightforward critical judgment.
But sophisticated adults have difficulty in using these terms consistently.
Moreover, fact versus opinion is a false dichotomy. In other words, facts and opinions are categories falsely assumed to divide all statements one way or the other.
What makes one statement a fact and another an opinion? Opinion Let's begin with opinion. An opinion is a self-report of feelings or personal judgment, e. Opinions often contain clue words pointing to oneself, e.
Sometimes, however, a self-report is smuggled into a statement with an adjective indicating an attitude or emotion. For example, if I say, "This is a nasty day," I'm not really describing the objective day in the real world, but rather expressing my emotion that the day is unpleasant, which is equivalent to saying, "I'm not pleased about the day," a self-report.
There is no need to argue against opinions when they are recognized as self-reports rather than as claims about the real world.
It would be ridiculous to argue, "You are wrong--you really are not thirsty," or "In fact, the day actually is pleasant. For this reason, opinions self-reports don't count for much when someone is trying to persuade you.
You can always answer, "I have a different opinion. Moreover, since opinions are not claims about the real world, they are usually inconsequential. Fact Most people only count statements proven by observation as facts.
Any other statement is written off as opinion. By implication, only science has facts. But dictionaries define fact more generally as something that can be shown to be true, to exist, or to have happened.
Is that a fact?Philosophy (Critical Thinking) Test 1. Chapters STUDY. PLAY. "Whether our argument concerns public affairs or some other subject we must know some, if not all, of the facts about the subject on which we are to speak and argue.
Racial profiling is not an issue for white people, but it is an issue for African Americans. No Argument. If you think that “fact,” not argument, rules intelligent thinking, consider an example.
For nearly years, educated people in many Western cultures believed that bloodletting —deliberately causing a sick person to lose blood—was the most effective treatment for a variety of illnesses. The “fact” that bloodletting is beneficial to human health was not . 3 IV.
You may divide issues into matters of fact and matters of pure opinion, as long as you use those words leslutinsduphoenix.com tools of critical thinking are particularly well suited to deliberating about the former. A. A fact is a true claim, whereas an opinion is something that someone believes to be true.
The many issues raised by the Chinese Room argument may not be settled until there is a consensus about the nature of meaning, its relation to syntax, and about the biological basis of consciousness. There continues to be significant disagreement about what processes create meaning, understanding, and consciousness, as well as what can be proven a priori by thought experiments.
The argument and thought-experiment now generally known as the Chinese Room Argument was first published in a paper in by American philosopher John Searle ().
It has become one of the best-known arguments in recent philosophy.
Whether or not past humans believed in a flat earth with unquestioning conviction, in fact, the earth has never been flat. Thus, the claim that the earth is flat is a false factual claim.
To summarize so far, we have at least two kinds of claims that are neither fact nor opinion: false factual claims and untested claims.