Areas of reliability Article instability and susceptibility to bias are two potential problem areas in a crowdsourced work like Wikipedia The reliability of Wikipedia articles can be measured by the following criteria: Accuracy of information provided within articles Appropriateness of the images provided with the article Appropriateness of the style and focus of the articles  Susceptibility to, and exclusion and removal of, false information Comprehensiveness, scope and coverage within articles and in the range of articles Identification of reputable third-party sources as citations Stability of the articles Susceptibility to editorial and systemic bias Quality of writing The first four of these have been the subjects of various studies of the project, while the presence of bias is strongly disputed, and the prevalence and quality of citations can be tested within Wikipedia.
Improving your academic writing: My top 10 tips The topic of academic writing has been popular in the blogosphere and Twittersphere in the past couple of weeks. Yes, I also know that I linked to political science and public policy professors.
There are two reasons for this. I taught at a department of political science for 6 years and now I teach at one of public administration. My training comes largely from that academic field. The above said, I have also written on this blog why I read widely, and across disciplines I do the same on Twitter — I follow folks who are political scientists, educators, anthropologists, geographers, sociologists, computer scientists and mathematicians: I write differently if I am submitting a paper to Policy Sciences a public policy journal than if I am sending it to Water International an area journal focusing on water.
I write differently for a human geography audience than I do for a political science one. That was the very first piece of advice my PhD advisor gave me on writing: I write differently a policy advice report than I do a public policy scholarly paper.
The audiences are different, as are the goals of each piece of writing. I have been mentored and have learned from my former PhD advisor, from my former doctoral committee, other faculty members, and from other folks I read. So while not attributing them to each person who taught me each, here are my top tips on academic writing.
This is what I do to improve my own writing and may be of value for those of you seeking to improve yours. Be disciplined and write every day. Every morning, I wake up anywhere between 4: I have been writing for 2 hours every single day of the week Saturdays and Sundays included for the past little while and it has done wonders for my writing.
I added 85 single spaced pages to my book, and produced single-spaced pages in the past couple of months or so. Give yourself the best tools to write. I grew up in an academic household, and thus my childhood bedroom also has a full-blown home office complete with desktop computer and printer, and wireless internet.
I also need to make sure that I have the tools to write anywhere I go, so I try to pack with me everything I need, including a paper holder. I need to make sure that every piece of furniture I have enables my writing.
Same goes for hardware and software. It was incredibly frustrating to have to switch computers because I only had EndNote in one of them I now use Mendeley as a reference manager.
Write as you would speak aka read aloud what you just wrote. I remember that the first time one of my professors told me this I felt offended. I thought I wrote well! But as I have learned through time, if I write as I speak, my writing becomes clearer.
Have other people read your pieces to provide you with feedback. This is a hard piece of advice to follow, as my writing often gets torn to pieces.
It always comes out stronger, though. I learned in this case, from my former PhD advisor to take the feedback that people gave me to improve my writing. If I am not writing clearly, I need to work on how to write crisp, short, punchy, effective sentences. Read a lot, and read across different disciplines.
My PhD itself is interdisciplinary, and the theoretical and analytical frameworks that I built for my doctoral dissertation borrowed from literature in anthropology, sociology, planning, human geography, chemical engineering.The Analytical Writing section of the GRE revised General Test consists of two separately timed analytical writing tasks: an Analyze an Issue task and an Analyze an Argument task.
§ Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading, High School, Beginning with School Year A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.
In some contexts, the word "thesis" or a cognate is used for part of a bachelor's or master's course, while "dissertation" is normally applied to a doctorate, while in other contexts, the reverse is true.
The IELTS writing task 2 sample answer below has examiner comments and is band score 9. The topic of social media is common and this IELTS essay question was reported in the IELTS test.
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